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英语四级考试语法相关部分指要

发表时间:2006年12月28日 来源:四六级考试网
一、大纲要求

  最新《大学英语教学大纲》(1999)对四级语法的要求是:“巩固和加深基本语法知识,提高在语篇水平上运用语法知识的能力。”

  二、四级语法结构与词汇考查内容

  四级考试对语法词汇的考查与《大纲》要求是十分一致的。综观近年来的四级考试题,我们不难发现四级考试语法词汇部分是这样体现《大纲》的。

  1.语法考题的涉及面宽

  近年考题曾经考到:几乎所有词类,三种动词的非谓语形式,名词从句,形容词从句,副词从句,独立主格,一致,倒装,强调等基本语法知识。

  2.语法考试的重点突出

  语法考试的重点为内容庞杂较难掌握的项目,这些项目还反复出现如:虚拟语气,状语从句,定语从句,独立主格,情态动词。

  3.具体考查重点为以上项目中的特殊用法,不常用的情况

  1)虚拟语气的考点为:would rather+that从句+一般过去时:It is vital/ necessary/ important/ urgent/ imperative/ desirable/ advisable/ natural/ essential+that+动词原形;It is time/about time/high time+that+一般过去时:proposal/suggestion+that+动词原形;lest+that+should+动词原形;if only+that+would+动词原形。

  2)状语从句的考点为:非if引导的条件状语从句,此类句子多用at times,provided,so long as,in case,once等来替代if;由even if/so,now that,for all等引导的让步状语从句;just/hardly…when引导的时间状语从句;more than,as…as,not so much as,the same as,as much as等引导的比较状语从句。

  3)独立主格结构多以逻辑主语+分词的形式出现。

  4)情态动词多与完成时形式连用。

  5)定语从句重点考查介词+关系代词(which)和as作为关系代词。

  4.词汇的考查重点为

  1)动词,名词与介词的搭配如:popular/patient+with;yield/solution/adapt/transfer/access+to;accuse/require+of;charge+for;under+discussion等等。

  2)习惯用法如:confess to/set about/be used to+doing;

be supposed to/have/make sb.+do等。

  3)由同一动词构成的短语如:come,go,set,break等构成的短语。

  4)单个的动词,抽象名词,形容词和副词多以近义词、同义词的形式出现。

  5)介词短语在句中作状语如:in terms of;with the exception of;in vain等,另外还应注意rather than,other than,such as,none/nothing+but等词在考题中的出现。

  5.近年来考题中的新趋势为:若干考点混合出现:一些交际用语也时常出现在考题中。

附:历年四级考试语法题选

一 虚拟语气考查点

essential , important 等词后的虚拟语气; 1) It was essential that the application forms___ back before the deadline (90年1月四级考试.)

A must be sent B would be sent C be sent D were sent(答案是C)

2) It is vital that enough money ___ to fund the project . (97年1月四级考试.)

A is collected B be collected C must be collected D can be collected (答案是C)

if only ,wish等词后的虚拟语气; 1) Look at the terrible situation I am in ! If I ___ your advice . (93年6月四级考试.)

A follow B had followed C would follow D have followed (答案是B)

2) I wish I ___ longer this morning ,but I had to get up and come to class. (95年6月四级考试.)

A have slept B slept C might have slept D could have slept (答案是D)

条件从句中的虚拟语气

1) H e must have had an accident , or he ___ then (90年1月四级考试.).

A would have been here B should be here C had to be here D would be here (答案是A)

二 动词的 ing 形式和过去分词

分词的独立结构

1)名词 (代词)+ 分词

A new technique ______, the yields as a whole increased by 20 per cent. (90/1)

A) working out C) having been worked

B) having worked out D) to have been worked out         (C)

With + 名词(代词)+ V--ed或V--ing  

2) After the Arab states won independence , great emphasis was laid on expanding education , with girls as well as boys _______ to go to school . (97/1)

A) to be couraged B) being encouraged C) been encouraged D) be encouraged (B)

动名词短语做宾语

They are considering _______ before the prices go up. (89/1)

A of buying the house C buying the house

B with buying the house D to buy the house (C)

分词短语做状语

________with the picture, Mary tore it to pieces. (92/6)

A Dissatisfying thoroughly C Being thoroughly dissatisfied

B to dissatisfy thoroughly D To be thoroughly dissatisfied (C)

分词短语做定语

If I correct someone , I will do it with as much good bumor and self C restraint as if I were the one _______. (95/1)

A to correct B correcting C having corrected D being correcting (D)

分词短语做补语

When I caught him _______ me I stopped buying things there and started dealing with another shop. (97/1)

A cheat B cheating C to cheat D to be cheating (B)

三 不定式

不定式在wh—Q,what ,how 等之后;

There is more land in Australia than the government knows ________. (89/1)

A what to do with B how to do C to do with it D to do it (A)

不定式做定语

不定式在 + which/who 之后做定语

不定式的进行式

不定式的完成式

不定式的被动语态

省to的不定式

四 名词做定语

I walked too much yesterday and ________ are still aching now . (95/6)

A my leg’s muscles C my leg muscles

B my muscles of leg D my muscles of the leg (C)

五 被动语态

The fifth generation computers , with artificial intelligence , ___________ and perfected now. (96/1)

A developed B have developed C are being developed D will have been developed (C)

六 时态

过完成式时

Before the first non C stop flight made in 1994 , it _____ necessary for all planes to land for refueling . (95/1)

A would be B has been C had been D would have been (C)

现在完成进行时

It seems oil _____ form this pipe for some time , we’ll have to take the machine apart to put it right .(97/6)

A had leaked B is leaking C leaked D has been leaking (D)

将来完成时

It’s reported that by the end of this month the output of cement in the factory _____ by about 10% . (96/1)

A will have risen B has risen C will be rising D has been rising (A)

七 词序(副词的位置,前置定语的位置)

I could not find ____ , and so I took this one .(91/6)

A a large enough coat B a large coat enough C an enough large coat D a coat enough large (A)

八 情态动词

Mary’s score on the test is the highest in her class ; she _____ have studied very hard . (89/1)

A may B should C must D ought to (C)

九 定语从句

_____ might be expected , the response to the question was very mixed . ( 95/1)

A As B That C It D What (A)

十 同位语从句

The mere fact ____ most people believe nuclear war would be madness does mean that it will not occur .(97/6)

A what B which C that D why (C)

十一 强调句型

___--she first heard of the man referred to as specialist . (90/1)

A That was form Stephen B It was Stephen

C It was form Stephen D It was Stephen that (C)

十二 主语和谓语动词的一致性

How close parents are to there children ____ a strong influence on the character of the children .

A have B has C having D to have (B)

十三 省略

_____ with the size of the whole earth , the highest mountain does not seem high at all . (90/1)

A When compared  B Compare  C While comparing  D Comparing (A)

十四 到装

She never laughed , ____ lose he temper .(90/1)

A or she ever did B nor did she ever C or did she ever D nor she ever did (B)

十五 状语从句

You can not be ____ careful when you drive a car .(97/6 )

A very  B so  C too  D enough (C)