当前位置:首页 >> 英语六级词汇

同义词、近义词

发表时间:2006年12月28日 来源:四六级考试网

同义词、近义词是指在概念上虽相同或相近,但在具体语境中,其含义和用法皆有一定差别的词语。这些差异包括语体上、语用上和搭配上的差别。
[例1]
The service operates 36 libraries throughout the country, while six __________ libraries specially serve the countryside.
a. mobile b. shifting c. drifting d. rotating {1993年6月全真试题}
答案为a. mobile意为"流动的"。 b. shifting"移动的;转换的";c. drifting"漂流的";d. rotating"转动的,旋转的"。
[例2]
Last year, the crime rate in Chicago has sharply __________ in giving the class lectures.
a. declined b. lessened c. descended d. slipped {1997年6月全真试题}
答案为a. decline意为"下降"。b. lessened"变小,减轻";c. descended "下(山,楼梯等)d. slipped"滑落,跌落"。
形近义异词
形近义异词指外形结构部分相似但意义却不一样的词,多见于前缀、后缀或词根相同的词汇。
[例3]
The drowning child was saved by Dick's _________ action.
a. acute b. alert c. profound d. prompt {1992年6月全真试题}
答案为d. prompt意为"及时的"。 a. acute"尖锐的";b. alert"警觉的";c. profound"深奥的"。
[例4]
It will be safer to walk the streets because people will not need to carry large amounts of cash; virtually all financial ________will be conducted by computer.
a. transactions b. transmissions c. transitions d. transformations {1997年6月全真试题}
答案为a. transactions意为"交易"。b. transmissions"传递,传达";c. transitions"过渡,转变";d. transformations"变化,改造"。
同词类不同词义的词
这种试题主要是考察考生的词汇量的大小,因为所考的词语并非很常用。在近几年的考题里这种考题的数量占有的比例很大。
[例5]
If a person talks about his weak points, his listener is expected to say something in the way of ________.
a. assurance b. persuasion c. encouragement d. confirmation {1997年6月全真试题}
答案为c. encouragement意为"鼓励"。a. assurance"肯定";b. persuasion"劝说";d. confirmation"证实"。
[例6]
Recently a number of cases have been reported of young children ________ a violent act previously seen on television.
a. modifying b. duplicating c. accelerating d. stimulating {1992年6月全真试题}
答案为b. duplicating意为"模仿"。a. modifying"缓和,减轻";c. accelerating"加速";d. stimulating"刺激,激发"。
短语动词
短语动词指由动词加上介词或副词构成的短语。其中动词多为单音节的词。短语动词具有明显的约定俗成的特点,在语法上起动词的作用;在语义上往往并非是各词相加而成,而是具有其独立的意义。
[例7]
When Jack was eighteen he _________ going around with a strange set of people and staying out very late.
a. took to b. took for c. took up d. took on {1990年1月全真试题}
答案为a. took to意为"习惯于…"。b. took for"认为";c. took up"着手处理";d. took on"呈现"。
[例8]
David likes country life and has decided to _________ farming.
a. go in for b. go back on c. go through with d. go along with {1997年6月全真试题}
答案为a. go in for意为"从事于…"。b. go back on"背叛;违背";c. go through with"把…进行到底,完成";d. go along with"赞同,支持"。
固定搭配
顾名思义,固定搭配即是约定俗成的一种词汇现象。具体包括名词与介词、动词与名词间的搭配,也指介词短语。
[例9]
Our house is about a mile from the station and there are not many houses ________.
a. in between b. among them c. far apart d. from each other {1992年6月全真试题}
答案为a. in between意为"其中"。b. among them"在他们当中";c. far apart"相隔很远"; d. from each other"互相间,彼此"。
[例10]
The ratio of the work done by the machine _________ the work done on it is called the efficiency of the machine.
a. against b. with c. to d. for {1992年6月全真试题}
答案为c. ratio to意为"{某物}和{另一物}的比率"。a. against"背着,反对";b. with"和…";d. for"为了"。
针对上述词汇题型的特点,考生平时应正确理解同义词和近义词。没有真正意义上的同义词,所谓同义词在内涵和用法上多少都有差异;其次,注意辨别词形相近的词,多数这类词的含义不相同;最后,要多记各种固定搭配和短语动词,这两类词汇属约定俗成的习惯用法,并无多少规律可依,切勿望文生义。
考试时也应采取理解句意、决定取舍和排除干扰题的应试策略。