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表语形容词

发表时间:2006年12月28日 来源:四六级考试网

形容词这个庞大家庭中,有一类以前缀a-开头的形容词。这类词在词典上一般都标有“predadj.”字样,语法书上一般称这类形容词为表语形容词。本文对表语形容词的构成类别、用法特征以及它的修饰语作一综述。

 

一、表语形容词的构成类别

 

1.由前缀a-加名词构成,表示方向、位置或状态。

 

ajar(半开着的),afire(燃烧着的,激动的),aflame(燃烧着的),alike(相似的),abloom(<花>开着的),ahead(在前面的), athirst(渴望的),awheel(乘车的,骑车的),alight(燃烧的,明亮的)

 

2.由前缀a-加动词,特别是描述性动词构成,表示状况。

 

ablush(红着脸),afloat(漂浮着的,在船上),alive(活着的),aflutter(飘动着的,鼓动的),aflare(闪耀着的),aglare(闪光的,耀眼的),agleam(闪烁着微光的),aglitter(闪闪发光的),aglow(发红的),asleep(睡着的),astir(动起来,轰动起来),aswirl(旋转着的),atremble(发抖的),awhirl(旋转着的),awash(被浪潮冲打的,漂浮的)

 

3.由前缀a-加形容词构成。

 

alone(孤独的),ashamed(羞耻的),askew(歪斜的),aweary(疲倦的)

 

4.其他情况:

 

aloof(冷淡的,孤零的),afraid(害怕的), agog(热望的),akimbo(两手叉腰的)

 

二、表语形容词的用法特点

 

1.在句中充当表语。

 

The ship was adrift on unknown seas.那艘船在陌生的海域漂流。

 

I was alone in the house.我独自在房子里。

 

2.这类形容词一般不能单独置于名词之前作前置定语。例如不可以说an asleep child an alive fish

 

如果此类形容词要作前置定语,必须有其自身的修饰语。

 

但也有例外情况,aloofalert也可以作前置定语。例如:

 

an aloof building一座孤零零的大楼

 

an alert manner警觉的行为

 

3.这类形容词可以作后置定语,其含义往往相当于一个关系分句。例如:

 

Time alone will show who was right

唯独时间能证明到底谁是对的。(这里alone相当于which that is alone

 

The house ablaze is next door to mine

着火的那家与我家相邻。(这里ablaze相当于 which that is ablaze

 

4.这类形容词可用作宾语补足语或在被动结构中作主语补足语。例如:

 

The news that the president is coming set the whole village astir

总统要来的消息使全村为之骚动。

 

The door is kept ajar.门半掩着。

 

Don't take my words amiss.别对我的话见怪。

 

The ship stuck fast on the rocks and we couldn't get it afloat again

船牢牢地搁浅在礁石上,我们无法使它再浮起来。

 

5.此类形容词(尤其是形容词短语)在句中还可以作状语。例如:

 

Afraid of being cut offthey lost no time in turning back

由于害怕被切断,他们赶紧退回去。

 

6.这类形容词后有的可以与某些介词、不定式搭配,有的还可接that从句。例如:

 

It is not amiss to do so.这样做是可以的。

 

He is alive with ambition.他雄心勃勃。

 

The sky was aglow with the setting sun.天空因夕阳映照而发红光。

 

He felt ashamed that he had done so little.他因做的事太少而感到惭愧。

 

此外,较为常见的搭配还有abed with ablaze withaflame withafraid ofto do that),alow withahead ofalike toalight with alive with toalone inashamed ofto do for that),aware of thatawake to

 

三、表语形容词的修饰语

 

表语形容词一般情况下不能像其他形容词一样被very修饰,而只能用very much fastallwidewell等词修饰。特别需要注意的是修饰语与表语形容词之间的许多习惯搭配。

 

1.此类形容词都可用very much much修饰。very muchmuch的加强语气的说法。在实际运用中,用very much远比用 much普遍。习惯上用very much修饰的此类形容词常见的有alikealoafawareasleep aloneafraidaglow等。例如:

 

The two brothers are very much alike.这兄弟俩非常相像。

 

We are very much aware of the gravity of the situation.我们十分明白形势的严重性。

 

2fast习惯上用以修饰asleepaground等词。此时,fast意义是“完全地、紧紧地”。例如:

 

The boat was fast aground.小船搁浅了,完全动弹不得。

 

3.人们习惯还用allquite修饰alone wide修饰awakedeepsound修饰asleep。例如:

 

The house stands on the hillside all alone with no other houses near it

那房子孤零零地座落在山坡上,附近没有别的房子。

 

She was still very wide awake despite the lateness of the hour

尽管夜已深,她仍毫无睡意。

 

The baby was deep sound asleep.婴儿正在熟睡。

 

4.另外,根据R夸克等人的观点,现代英语中,可以用very修饰alike以及其他一些描述心理状态和感受的形容词,如afraid aloofashamed等。例如:

 

His little daughter is a very ashamed girl.他的小女儿是个十分害羞的姑娘。

 

She was very afraid of waking her hus- band.她生怕吵醒了她的丈夫。

 

He is a very aloof character.他是个冷漠的怪人。

 

即时练习:

 

翻译下列句子,注意:句中应包括表语形容词。

 

1)我昨天表现不好,我现在感到很惭愧。

 

2)老太太一听到这消息就吓得脸上失去了血色。

 

3)这屋子灯火通明。

 

4)他们都是一样的白色装束。

 

5)只有史密斯知道发生了什么事。

 

Key

1I behaved badly yesterday and I am ashamedof myselfnow

 

2At the news the old lady was so afraid that her face was drained of blood

 

3The house was ablaze with lights

 

4They were all dressed alike in white dresses

 

5Smith alone knew what happened